Powers of a contract Security Officer Vs in-house security in virginia
What is a in-house security officer and how are they different than contract security officers in Virginia?
In-house security personnel is strictly unarmed only. They can not carry or have access to a firearm while they are working. The company "Wal-mart" for example have their own security team (loss prevention) to police their store. And in some cases, they have contract security officers. However, their in-house security team has no authority to arrest or to detain by force. However they can approach you and ask you to come back to their office if they observed you conceal tangible goods, but they can not force you or go hands on unless they are in fear for their safety. Like anyone else, they do have the right to defend themselves. With in-house security, if there is an incident than that company would face any legal repercussions pertaining to the incident. Also with in-house security personnel, they are not bound by DCJS (Department of Criminal Justice Services) for training requirements.
There are 2 different types of contract Security Officers: Unarmed and Armed Security Officers
Contract Security Personnel (Unarmed Security Officers) - are hired through a private security company business that are bound by DCJS regulations, training requirements and have very limited authority. The unarmed security role is "observe and report only" Most companies have contract security personnel for insurance purposes and don’t have the resources or don’t want the headache of a "in-house security department". A lot of companies feel safer with a uniform presence in their building and not a lot of overhead to worry about with having contract security vs having a in-house security department.
Contract Security Personnel (Armed Security Officers) – Are hired through a private security company that are bound by DCJS regulations, training requirements and have limited arrest authority on the property they are hired to protect. A registered armed security officer of a private security business while at a location which the business is contracted to protect shall have the power to effect an arrest for an offense occurring (i) in his presence on such premises or (ii) in the presence of a merchant, agent, or employee of the merchant the private security business has contracted to protect, if the merchant, agent, or employee had probable cause to believe that the person arrested had shoplifted or committed willful concealment of goods as contemplated by § 18.2-106. For the purposes of § 19.2-74, a registered armed security officer of a private security services business shall be considered an arresting officer.
A contract armed security officer can write and issue summons for class 1 and 2 misdemeanors committed in their presence while on the property they are hired to protect. It also falls on the private security company and client if they want their armed personnel writing uniform summonses or not. Liability issues come into play.
A contract security officer can enforce some laws regarding to handicap placard enforcement under Va Code - 46.2-1243, 46.2-1255 -Private Property Only-
Do I have to give my ID to a Security Officer Vs Police Officer
A contract security officer is not a sworn individual and therefore does not need a reason to stop someone within the scope of their duties on private property. On private property a person's bill of rights are limited when it comes to dealing with private security personnel vs dealing with a police officer in a public setting where a police officer would need probable cause to ID you in the public. A security officer does not need any reason to ID someone on their property they are hired to protect. It also depends on the client and the security company/client's SOP on said property. Each client has their own set of rules regarding to identifying people on their property.